Calling convention

Go uses a stack-based calling convention and passes a pointer to the argument list as the first argument in the function. There were/are plans to switch to a register-based calling convention but they’re now on hold.

TinyGo, however, uses a register based calling convention. In fact it is somewhat compatible with the C calling convention but with a few quirks:

  • Struct parameters are split into separate arguments, if the number of fields (after flattening recursively) is 3 or lower. This is similar to the Swift calling convention. In the case of TinyGo, the size of each field does not matter, a field can even be an array:

    {i8*, i32}           -> i8*, i32
    {{i8*, i32}, i16}    -> i8*, i32, i16
    {{i64}}              -> i64
    {}                   ->
    {i8*, i32, i8, i8}   -> {i8*, i32, i8, i8}
    {{i8*, i32, i8}, i8} -> {{i8*, i32, i8}, i8}
    

    Note that all native Go data types that are lowered to aggregate types in LLVM are expanded this way: string, slices, interfaces, and fat function pointers. This avoids some overhead in the C calling convention and makes the work of the LLVM optimizers easier.

  • The WebAssembly target by default doesn’t export or import i64 (int64, uint64) parameters. Instead, it replaces them with i64*, allocating the value on the stack. In other words, imported functions are called with a 64-bit integer on the stack and exported functions must be called with a pointer to a 64-bit integer somewhere in linear memory.

    This is a workaround for a limitation in JavaScript, which only deals with doubles and can therefore only work with integers up to 32-bit in size (a 64-bit integer cannot be represented exactly in a double, a 32-bit integer can). It is expected that 64-bit integers will be added in the near future at which point this calling convention workaround may be removed. Also see this wasm-bindgen issue.

    Currently there are also non-browser WebAssembly execution environments that do not have this limitation. Use the -wasm-abi=generic flag to remove the behavior described above and enable emitting functions with i64 parameters directly.

  • The WebAssembly target does not return variables directly that cannot be handled by JavaScript (see above about i64, also struct, i64, multiple return values, etc). Instead, they are stored into a pointer passed as the first parameter by the caller.

    This is the calling convention as implemented by LLVM, with the extension that i64 return values are returned in the same way as aggregate types.

  • Non-exported functions have two extra i8 (roughly equivalent to unsafe.Pointer) parameters appended at the end of the argument list. The first extra parameter is the context for when the function is a function pointer. If it is known not to be a closure, this value may be left undefined. The second extra parameter is the parent goroutine handle, which is used only in blocking functions to return to the parent, otherwise it is also unused and may be left undefined.

This calling convention may change in the future. Changes will be documented here. However, even though it may change, it is expected that function signatures that only contain integers and pointers will remain stable.